War Of 1812 Refugee Migration
The War of 1812 between the United States and Britain was another era that saw a new influx of Black families to the British territories of Nova Scotia & New Brunswick .
As former slaves the chance to seek freedom outside of the United States was to good to resist. The result was that between 1813 -1816 approximately two thousand Black men , women & children commonly referred to as Black Refugees arrived in the Maritimes.
New Brunswick received between four or five hundred and Nova Scotia the remainder, which in year 1816 numbered to over one thousand & six hundred. Their settlement was full of difficulties as well as opposition from White settlers afraid of losing control of their power in society. Discrimination in land grants , jobs, and supplies was rampant as these individuals tried to make a living and provide a better life for their families in areas such as Preston, Africville, Hammonds Plains and Beechville.
Some were eventually put up in Poor houses or upon early arrival periods quarantined on Melville Island in Halifax , where the the Armdale Yacht Club is located today. A small number were enticed to leave for Trinidad in 1821, but the remainder stayed and today their descendants live in the various Black Communities across Nova Scotia.
-Black Cultural Centre For Nova Scotia
A popular impression that the first slaves in Canada were introduced into the Maritime Provinces by the Loyalists in 1783 is false. Historical records indicated that slavery was established in Quebec, by the French, through a royal mandate issued by Louis XIV in 1689.
This mandate not only gave permission to “Canadians to avail themselves of the services of African slaves”, but declared as well that all negroes who had been sold, bought or held should belong to the person so owning them, in full proprietorship. This system was given further legal recognition through a number of royal declarations regarding slavery and slaves in 1721, 1742 and 1745, making it possible for slaves to be listed often with “effects and merchandise” in parish records, legal notices and the official documents of the times. As time passed it was not unusual to see ads appear in the newspaper for slaves. From the royal mandate in 1689, it took approximately sixty years for the practice of slavery to reach Nova Scotia. When the Loyalists arrived in 1783, slavery was already flourishing.
Thirty-five hundred Black people who fled from Southern States during the American Revolutionary War arrived in Canada with the Loyalists. The British had promised them protection, land, and a better life.
Between 1783-4, some 1232 Black slaves were brought by British masters into Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. Of this number, 26 went to Prince Edward Island and 441 went to New Brunswick. The number of slaves in Upper Canada during the Loyalist immigration was estimated to be about 500 while Lower Canada accounted for 304. Of a total of some 2000 slaves who entered Canada in 1783-4, more than half that number were distributed in the Atlantic Provinces, with Nova Scotia receiving the largest consignment, Annapolis Royal leading with 230 and Digby second with 152.
Under the command of Colonel Bluck, an African Corps was established known as the Black Pioneers. This corps consisted of runaway slaves. In the majority of Loyalist Corps, there were men of African descent serving as buglers, musicians and servants. These people settled in the Shelburne and Birchtown areas in January 1784 with the white settlers. However, they soon realized they had not escaped their harsh, painful life of slavery. By 1785 Shelburne was largely known as a place with slave labour and approximately 1,269 “servants.”
The treatment of slaves in Canada was just as severe as their treatment in the United States. They were punished when they disobeyed their master and in some cases they were whipped, tortured or murdered. Eventually laws were passed which made killing slaves as serious a crime as killing a freedman.
Slavery began to decline in the opening decades of the nineteenth century due to a combination of factors that made slavery uneconomic in Canada, including the opposition of the law courts throughout British North America from the third quarter of the eighteenth century. When slaves were legally emancipated as of August 1, 1834, there were very few slaves in British North America who had not already obtained their legal freedom.
On that date 781,000 slaves were set free in the British Empire. A hundred million dollars were distributed by the British Government to compensate slave owners. Not a single dollar was paid in Canada since no claims for compensation were submitted. The institution of slavery was no longer of consequence.
Slavery is a part of our history and culture that we should not ignore or find humiliating. Our ancestors were captured like animals, treated as property, separated from their families, and routinely subjected to even more unbearable treatment. Surviving this made us a strong people, empowered to rise above racism. The magnificent contribution that Africans made to society is a legacy we must convey to future generations in all walks of life.
-Black Cultural Centre For Nova Scotia
If I have a cup of coffee that is too strong for me because it is too black, I weaken it by pouring cream into it. I integrate it with cream. If I keep pouring enough cream in the coffee, pretty soon the entire flavor of the coffee is changed; the very nature of the coffee is changed. If enough cream is poured in, eventually you don’t even know that I had coffee in this cup. This is what happened with the March on Washington. The whites didn’t integrate it; they infiltrated it. Whites joined it; they engulfed it; they became so much a part of it, it lost its original flavor. It ceased to be a black march; it ceased to be militant; it ceased to be angry; it ceased to be impatient. In fact, it ceased to be a march.
This is my feelings regarding the Help and every other Civil Rights related movie Hollywood has ever produced. The White Savior theme is disingenuous, in addition to being incredibly inaccurate.(via dank-potion)
Daisy Bates (1914 - 1999)
The driving force behind Daisy Bates activism was the rape and murder of her mother by three white men. Her mothers body was found by some young men who were fishing on the lake where the body was tossed.
Just over 50 years ago, a rock shattered the picture window of a light-brick house in Little Rock, Ark.
A note was tied to it that read: “Stone this time. Dynamite next.”
The house belonged to Daisy and L.C. Bates.
The couple led efforts to end segregation in Arkansas — on buses, in libraries and in the public schools.
On Monday, the nation will mark 50 years since black students integrated Central High School in Little Rock.
“Mrs. Bates was the person for the moment,” says Annie Abrams, a friend of Daisy Bates who was one of many black residents active at the time of the crisis.
“Daisy Bates was the poster child of black resistance. She was a quarterback, the coach. We were the players,” says Ernest Green, one of the Little Rock Nine, the group of students who integrated Central High School.
“She was conditioned to know that the civil rights movement was moving forward,” Sybil Jordan Hampton, one of the first African American students to graduate from Central High, says. Daisy Bates helped drive the movement in Little Rock.
Bates and her husband, L.C., were a team: She was the president of the Arkansas NAACP; he was its regional director. He was the publisher of the largest black newspaper in the state; she was his star reporter.
“The reason they were larger than life … Daisy and L.C. were always challenging whatever the prevailing attitude of white authority, of segregation, of restrictions of Jim Crow,” Green says
The story began in 1954 when the Supreme Court called for an end to segregated schools.
Daisy Bates and the NAACP took the Little Rock school board to court.
At the time, Green was attending Dunbar High School, the all-black in Little Rock.
“Daisy was in the papers indicating that she was going to challenge the Little Rock School Board to adhere to the ‘54 decision. So the reason that they put together this plan was because Daisy forced them to put the plan together.”
Recruiting Students to Go First
The plan could work only if there were students — children really — willing to be the first to possibly face violence and defy the segregationists.
Daisy Bates helped recruit them, bright kids the school board couldn’t turn down.
“I’ve known Ms. Bates since I was probably two years old and I was a paper carrier for their newspaper from the time I was six,” says Hampton. She was one of the children considered, though she wasn’t selected as one of the original nine.
“I remember that she talked to my parents at an NAACP meeting,” Hampton says. “And she told my parents that she felt that my brother and I both would be good candidates. And she said to my parents that she hoped that she would have their support in our stepping forward.”
Daisy Bates did win some parents over — even as the school board was pressuring them to keep their children at the all-black high school.
“You really needed a woman to go and talk with families and to give the assurance that the students were going to have a touch point of comfort,” Hampton says. “But she also was a very beautiful woman and the national press and other people found it just wonderful to have this star-quality black woman.”
Bates wore high heels and stylish dresses, and her friend Annie Abrams recalls her as one of the most glamorous, sophisticated black women in town.
Bates had no children of her own, but she was “hungry for children and children were attracted to her because she was a Lena Horne in our town.”
It was unusual, in an era when black leaders were almost always men, for a black woman to take a leading role — especially in a drama that was playing out on the national stage.
‘Blood Will Run in the Streets’
The showdown came in the fall of 1957.
Arkansas Gov. Orval Faubus vowed “blood will run in the streets” if black students tried to enter Central High.
On the first day of school, Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard to turn the students away. Some two weeks passed and the nation waited to see what President Eisenhower would do.
Sending in the Troops
Minniejean Brown Trickey and Ernest Greene, two of the Little Rock Nine, remember the scene inside Daisy Bates’ house.
“The house was buzzing with media and people in and out,” Trickey says. “Things were happening. I mean, [civil rights lawyer] Thurgood Marshall was his amazing self. He explained things to us at a certain point and there were quite a few great minds there who were passing on information and laughing, talking.”
Green adds, “What I remember at Ms. Bates’ house is that you had all of this drama going on, but we were still teenagers. We were worried about how we were going to look getting into the jeep. Why couldn’t we have two jeeps, instead of one. And Daisy said: ‘Look, this is a very important moment. The fact that the president of the United States has sent the United States Army here to escort you into school means that this government is finally serious about school desegregation.’”
Eisenhower had acted, sending in the 101st Airborne to escort five boys and four girls to high school.
The next days and weeks, Daisy Bates’ house was still headquarters for the Little Rock Nine.
By week’s end, Central High had been integrated.
Green — the only senior in the group — graduated the following spring.
Martin Luther King Jr. attended the graduation ceremony. Daisy Bates could not. Her face and name were better-known in the city than King’s, and her presence might have stirred violence.
A Complicated Legacy
Fifty years later, her legacy is complicated.
Trickey, one of the Little Rock Nine, says that Bates, who wrote a book in 1962, took too much credit for her role in the drama.
“Actually I think she has in her writing expanded what her role was with us,” Trickey says. “And part of that is unfortunate because she emerged as the spokesperson for the Little Rock Nine. And our parents, by and large, were silenced.
“I’ll tell you one thing: it was my dad who lost his job,” Trickey says. “It was my mother who got the terror calls. It was my mother who was frightened for my life, and they were the heroes of this.”
Central High graduate Sybil Jordan Hampton thinks Daisy Bates was also heroic.
“Mrs. Bates was an extraordinarily complex woman,” Jordan says. “An incident thrust her into the forefront of a movement. And I always have felt that Mrs. Bates was a tragic figure.”
Fifty years on, the woman who had been at the center of the Little Rock movement is barely remembered. Her home, where it all happened, was nearly lost after her husband passed away and money was tight.
Daisy Bates died in 1999. She became the first — and still only — African-American to lie in state in the Arkansas Capitol, the same building once occupied by Gov. Faubus.
On that same day, the Little Rock Nine were honored at the White House by Bill Clinton, the president from Arkansas.
by Juan Williams
47 years ago to the day Malcolm X was killed as he prepared to give a speech in Manhattan. I’ve included a few quotations of his that I like, but I urge everybody to just read his autobiography. The guy lived an extraordinary life, the book is very interesting and he raises some excellent points, as well as telling truly thrilling stories.
“We declare our right on this earth…to be a human being, to be respected as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intend to bring into existence by any means necessary.”
“Look at yourselves. Some of you teenagers, students. How do you think I feel and I belong to a generation ahead of you - how do you think I feel to have to tell you, ‘We, my generation, sat around like a knot on a wall while the whole world was fighting for its hum an rights - and you’ve got to be born into a society where you still have that same fight.’ What did we do, who preceded you ? I’ll tell you what we did. Nothing. And don’t you make the same mistake we made….”
“I’m not going to sit at your table and watch you eat, with nothing on my plate, and call myself a diner. Sitting at the table doesn’t make you a diner, unless you eat some of what’s on that plate. Being here in America doesn’t make you an American…. No I’m not an American, I’m one of the 22 million black people who are the victims of Americanism. One of the 22 million black people who are the victims of democracy, nothing but disguised hypocrisy…. I’m speaking as a victim of this American system. And I see America through the eyes of a victim. I don’t see any American dream; I see an American nightmare.”
Black History Month fact #12
The Great Pyramid of Giza is an architectural representation of pi (3.14).
Each side of the Great Pyramid (Pi-ramid) of Giza is about 755 ft long. Each side of the Pyramid of Giza is NOT exactly the same because the pyramid was built to withstand the changing movements of the Earth. That is why the pyramids have yet to collapse.
The perimeter gives you the base. so 755ishft plus 755ishft times 2 gives you about 3020 sq.ft. The height of the Pyramid of Giza is 481.4 feet.
Take the perimeter of base of the pyramid, divide it by 2, then divide it by the height, and you get 3.14.
This fact shows that Ancient Egyptians, or Anu, didn’t just build things arbitrarily; everything had a purpose. Their engineers built structures in harmony with nature. It’s also interesting how we are taught about mathematics. Pi is mostly associated only with circles, but here we see how it fundamentally applies to other shapes as well.
The first architect of the pyramids was Imhotep, chancellor of the Pharoah Djoser of the 3rd dynasty in the 2600s BCE. Imhotep means “the one who comes in peace.”
Khufu, second pharoah of the 4th dynasty in 2500s BCE, built the Great Pyramid of Giza. Khufu’s full name was “Khnum-Khufu” which means “the god Khnum protects me.”
Black History Month fact #15
711 to 1492 Spain, as it is now known, was ruled by Black African Moors.
The etymology of the word ‘Moor’ is black, or dark. Moors were a mix of Black African and Arabic Muslims who ruled Spain and the rest of the Iberian peninsula between 711 and 1492.
The Moors were constantly defending against invading Christian Europeans from the north. This period as we are brainwashed to know from K-12 is called the Reconquista, or the reconquest, during the Christian/Muslim war of the Crusades.
Nevertheless, Al-Andalus, or Moorish Iberia, flourished in the arts, sciences, medicine, religion, culture, and architecture. Córdoba was one capitol of the several caliphates on the peninsula, and was one of the most advanced and populous cities in the world at the time, as well as a great cultural, political, financial and economic center.
Rule under these kingdoms saw the rise in cultural exchange and cooperation between Christians, Muslims, and Jews. Under the Caliphate of Córdoba, al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, and the city of Córdoba became one of the leading cultural and economic centres in both the Mediterranean Basin and the Islamic world.
Moorish contributions to Western Europe and especially to Spain were almost incalculable—in art and architecture, medicine and science, and learning (especially ancient Greek learning).
Hence, ASAH readers, why people refer to Ferdinand as an “Iberian Moor”. *reads things occasionally*
I scrolled past this quickly and my first thought was ‘Del, where have you found a painting of Idris Elba?’
700 years. Note that shit. 700 years. 700 years is a long fucking time. 700 righteously negates any suggestion that there couldn’t have been POC in Europe pre-triangle trade.
Put it in your handy dandy notebook.
Reblog this to Promote this blog we’re here to inspire you. To us black history is not just a month or about one set of people its everyday of the year and spans all diaspora internationally.
I wonder what the world would be like if all of these great leaders came together as one.
Mischaracterized as a simple woman who chose not to stand because she had tired feet, often Parks’ long history of activism is erased from our collective consciousness. Parks served as an active member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People beginning in the early 1940s, working on a voter registration campaign, leading the local NAACP Youth Council, and attending a leadership conference organized by civil rights visionary, Ella Baker. It would be Parks’ work as a young activist in the NAACP that would lead her to investigate a horrible incident of abduction and rape that had taken place in her hometown of Abbeville, Alabama…
Just weeks before her arrest, Parks attended a workshop at the Highlander Folk School, an egalitarian, interracial institution founded in the nineteen-thirties as a training ground for union activists, which became an important center for civil rights activists. At the workshop, attendees were asked to think about what they could do as individuals to challenge the inequalities faced by African Americans in the South. Parks found her answer on Montgomery’s segregated buses just a few weeks later.
Lillian “Lil” Harding Armstrong joined “King” Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band as pianist and is believed to have been the first woman to enter the jazz field. She was the first woman to play piano with jazz bands and led many of the finest black bands from the 1920s on, including the Dreamland Syncopators (also known as Lil’s Hot Shots). Born in Memphis, she studied at Fist University but moved to Chicago with her family and never returned to graduate. Armstrong earned a teacher’s certificate from Chicago College of Music and a post-graduate diploma from New York College of Music. “Miss Lil,” as she was called, married Louis Armstrong in 1924 and was a positive influence on his career.
Source: Black Firsts: Groundbreaking Events in African American History
Cudjoe Lewis is believed to be the last African born on African soil and brought to the United States by the transatlantic slave trade. He was a native of Takon, Benin, where he was captured in 1860 during an illegal slave-trading venture. Congress outlawed the importation of slaves in 1808. Together with more than a hundred other captured Africans, he was brought on the ship Clotilde to Mobile, Alabama. Cudjoe and 31 other enslaved Africans were taken to the property owned by Timothy Meaher, shipbuilder and owner of the Clotilde. 5 years later slavery was over so Cudjoe and his tribespeople requested to be taken back to Africa, but it was left ignored. He and other Africans established a community near Mobile, Alabama which became called Africatown. They maintained their African language and tribal customs well into the 1950s. He died in 1934 at the age of 94. Before he died, he gave several interviews on his experiences including one to the writer Zora Neale Hurston. During her interview in 1928, she made a short film of Cudjoe, the only moving image that exists in the Western Hemisphere of an African transported through the Transatlantic Slave Trade.
Black History: October 16, 1968 - The Silent Protest
Today in history at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City, African-American athlete Tommie Smith won the 200-metre dash in a record time of 19.83 seconds, thus winning the gold medal. White Australian athlete Peter Norman came second at 20.06 seconds and African-American athlete John Carlos came third at 20.10 seconds.
While receiving their medals at the podium:
- Smith and Carlos removed their shoes, wearing black socks to symbolise black poverty
- Smith represented his black pride by wearing a black scarf
- Carlos wore beads as a reference to the slaves who were thrown over boats in the middle passage and for those who were lynched, killed, hung and tarred
- Both athletes wore a single black glove (Peter Norman suggested that John Carlos should wear Tommie Smith’s left-hand glove)
Smith and Carlos bowed their head and raised their gloved fists as the American Star-Spangled Banner played, and the crowd booed the athletes as they left the podium. After the event, Smith stated:
“If I win I am an American, not a black American. But if I did something bad then they would say “a Negro”. We are black and we are proud of being black. Black America will understand what we did tonight.”
This is a photo of the first Black girl to attend an all white school in the United States—Dorothy Counts—being jeered and taunted by her white, male peers. This photo encompasses a lot of things that I really hate: prejudice, ignorance, racism, sexism, inequality…
I used to have the above photo, as well as this one of Elizabeth Eckford, taped up on the wall in my room, as part of a sort of “tough-hearted women and femmes” altar-like thing. Resistance isn’t always this graceful; it doesn’t always wear a neat dress and endure the slings and arrows of ignorant, mean-spirited enemies without spitting back in rage. But when it does appear in this way, my heart breaks wide open.
Here’s to Dorothy, and Elizabeth, and Rosa, and all those others who I could sit and name all day. Inside those dresses are quiet warriors - Dorothy’s eyes say it all.
A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots.